Winter: Our deciduous trees, including beech, ash, horse chestnut, and oak have lost their leaves and bare branches are exposed. There are very few wild flowers in bloom. Insects have disappeared. Summer migrant birds, including cuckoos, swallows, house martins swifts and spotted flycatchers have flown south to to warmer countries where insects are abundant. Other animals, reptiles, amphibians and some small mammals hibernate. Nevertheless, many birds and mammals remain active in this harsh season.